The Ottoman Empire geography changed several times as the rulers expanded their territory. Of course, there were times when they also had to forsake land due to lost wars. This happened in the Ottoman Empire, just like it happens in every other civilization or kingdom.
In order to learn about the Ottoman Empire geography, it is important that we understand the history of the Ottoman Empire as well. It was a Muslim Empire of the Turks and existed from the 1300s to 1920. It was first founded by Osman I and reached its peak in the sixteenth century under the reign of Suleiman.
In the latter part of the 1200s the Seljuk Turks were defeated by Osman I who was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. He died in 1326, but his allies lived on and became known as the Ottoman Turks. They settled in Anatolia or modern day Turkey. They were basically positioned in the north western corner of Anatolia and from there they began expanding their territory.
Their center of operations was the city of Bursa, which they managed to take over from the Greeks after they put an end to the Byzantine rule there. After that, they entered Europe, when the Byzantine ruler John Cantacuzenus requested the help of the fierce Ottoman Empire janissaries in the civil war he fought against his rival, John V.
They began expanding northward from Thrace in Greece and went right up to the Balkans. By the year 1371 they had taken over Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia and even tried to take over the Byzantine Empire. And soon after, they had managed to take over much of Greece.
In the 1500s Ottoman Empire geography expanded further to include all the islands around Greece, Syria and even Egypt - after the Caliph at Cairo was defeated. Thereafter they managed to take over Palestine and the most prized territory of all - Mecca and Medina.
Onward went the expansion of the Ottoman Empire geography and its most powerful ruler Suleiman took over Hungary, Rhodes, Belgrade, Habsburg Empire and Vienna. After his death only two more territories of any significance were added to the Ottoman Empire geography - Cyprus and Crete.
And then came the decline. It started from the seventeenth century - there were fewer and fewer military successes - one by one territories managed to fight for their independence, until civil unrest brought an end to the Ottoman Empire Geography, in the hands of the European forces in the early 20th century.